Evaluation of Dairy–Yeast Prebiotic Supplementation in the Diet of Juvenile Goldfish in the Presence or Absence of Phytoplankton and Zooplankton
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Prebiotics recently have been shown to increase immune responses and disease resistance in certain fish species; therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate the commercially available dairy-yeast prebiotic, GroBiotic-A, for use with juvenile goldfish Carassius auratus. The study consisted of two 10-week feeding trials in which juvenile goldfish were fed practical diets that were either unsupplemented or supplemented with the dairy-yeast prebiotic at 2% by dry weight. Juvenile fish were sorted by size and stocked into 12 units within each of two culture systems: one indoor system supplied with recirculated well water and one system located outdoors with a continuous flow of pond water to provide a source of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Both diets were fed to fish in six units within each system at the same fixed percentage of body weight twice daily. Culture system (i.e., presence or absence of phytoplankton and zooplankton) was the primary factor influencing (P < 0.0001) percent weight gain, feed efficiency, and survival of goldfish during the feeding trials. No dietary effect was detected, although there was a significant (P < 0.05) interaction between culture system and diet, with supplementation of the dairy-yeast prebiotic tending to improve weight gain and feed efficiency of fish in the presence of phytoplankton/zooplankton. During a controlled disease challenge with an intraperitoneally administered dose of Aeromonas hydrophila that was equivalent to a predetermined LD50 (dose lethal to 50% of test fish), average survival values ranged between 67% and 83% for fish that previously had access to phytoplankton/zooplankton compared with 17-33% for fish that had no access to phytoplankton/zooplankton. The dairy-yeast prebiotic, however, did not enhance resistance of goldfish to the bacterial pathogen and did not greatly alter microbiota of the anterior or posterior gastrointestinal tract based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. In conclusion, the dairy-yeast prebiotic did not improve feed efficiency in goldfish or resistance to a bacterial pathogen as previously observed in golden shiners Notemigonus crysoleucas and hybrid bass (white bass Morone chrysops X striped bass M. saxatilis).
author list (cited authors)
Savolainen, L. C., & Gatlin, D. M.