Structural Inequalities in Outdoor Recreation Participation: A Multiple Hierarchy Stratification Perspective Academic Article uri icon


  • The purpose of this study is to empirically test the multiple hierarchy stratification perspective on outdoor recreation participation. Data for this study are from a telephone survey conducted of 3,000 Texas residents in 1998. Logistic regression analyses provided strong support for the multiple hierarchy stratification perspective. The results show that elderly minority females who do not have a college degree, and who do not make more than $20,000 per year occupy the lowest rank in the hierarchy of outdoor recreation participation probability. In contrast, young Anglo males who have a college degree, and who make more than $20,000 per year occupy the highest rank in the hierarchy. The remaining groups fall somewhere in the middle. The results indicate that if equity is to be achieved, outdoor recreation managers and planners must make an effort to find ways to enhance outdoor recreation participation among multiple disadvantaged populations. Copyright 2001 National Recreation and Park Association.

published proceedings

  • Journal of Leisure Research

author list (cited authors)

  • Lee, J., Scott, D., & Floyd, M. F.

citation count

  • 85

complete list of authors

  • Lee, Jin-Hyung||Scott, David||Floyd, Myron F

publication date

  • December 2001