Echoes of the Chisholm Trail Academic Article uri icon


  • The Grand Prairie and the Eastern and Western Cross Timbers are often referred to as the Cross Timbers and Prairies. While each of these areas is internally homogenous, each contains a great deal of climatic, topographic, geologic, and edaphic variation and the associated variations in plant and animal communities. Also, there is no complete agreement as to the geographic limits of these areas among various observers, which attests to the sinuous nature of the boundaries with other regions and the interdigitation of these regions with one another. The Cross Timbers formed the last major eastern forest type of vegetation before entering the vast grassland to the west. On the other hand, the Grand Prairie was generally described as open grassland. It contained woody elements, and the river bottoms were typically forested. Ranching was initially the primary activity followed by cropland agriculture on favorable soils. The greatest change in the Cross Timbers and Prairies is the transition from a rural, largely agricultural environment to a great deal of urban sprawl and rural home development. Lease hunting, recreation uses of various kinds and ecotourism has also become an important land uses and sources of income for both areas.

published proceedings

  • Rangelands

author list (cited authors)

  • Smeins, F. E.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Smeins, Fred E

publication date

  • January 2004