Equine blastocyst development after intracytoplasmic injection of sperm subjected to two freeze-thaw cycles. Academic Article uri icon


  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of thawing, division into aliquots and refreezing on fertilizing capacity (ability to support embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection; ICSI) of frozen stallion semen. Frozen semen from a fertile stallion was thawed, diluted 1:100 with freezing extender, and refrozen (2F treatment). Control semen was frozen only once. In vitro matured equine oocytes were injected with: (1) motile control spermatozoa; (2) motile 2F spermatozoa; (3) non-motile 2F spermatozoa; or (4) non-motile 2F spermatozoa, followed by injection of sperm extract. Blastocyst development after ICSI was equivalent between control spermatozoa and motile 2F spermatozoa (27 and 23%, respectively). Blastocyst development after injection of non-motile 2F spermatozoa (13%) tended (P=0.07) to be lower than that for control spermatozoa. Injection of sperm extract into oocytes that received non-motile 2F spermatozoa resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst development (to 2%) compared with injection of non-motile 2F spermatozoa alone. Spermatozoa from a subfertile stallion was similarly processed and used for ICSI; blastocyst development for both motile control (once frozen) spermatozoa and motile 2F spermatozoa was 9%. In conclusion, frozen stallion semen may be thawed, diluted, and refrozen without effect on the ability of motile spermatozoa to initiate embryo development after ICSI. Non-motile spermatozoa from reprocessed semen may also achieve embryo development after ICSI. To our knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the ability of refrozen spermatozoa to produce embryos by ICSI in any species.

published proceedings

  • Theriogenology

altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Choi, Y. H., Love, C. C., Varner, D. D., & Hinrichs, K.

citation count

  • 52

complete list of authors

  • Choi, YH||Love, CC||Varner, DD||Hinrichs, K

publication date

  • January 2006