Reading Difficulties and Grade Retention: What's the Connection for English Language Learners? Academic Article uri icon


  • Much of the student diversity in U.S. schools reflects increasing numbers of English language learners (ELL). ELL represent a very heterogeneous group in terms of their native language proficiency, educational experiences, access to quality early childhood programs, and immigration experiences. An unfortunate commonality they often share is poor academic achievement, particularly in the area of reading. Higher rates of grade retention and school dropout are consistently linked to poor academic performance. This article discusses literacy development, reading difficulties related to special education identification, and reading interventions for ELL. Practical strategies for reading instruction are also provided. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Bowman-Perrott, L. J., Herrera, S., & Murry, K.

citation count

  • 11

complete list of authors

  • Bowman-Perrott, Lisa J||Herrera, Socorro||Murry, Kevin

publication date

  • January 1, 2010 11:11 AM