The ICECUBE prototype string in AMANDA Academic Article uri icon


  • The Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array (Amanda) is a high-energy neutrino telescope. It is a lattice of optical modules (OM) installed in the clear ice below the South Pole Station. Each OM contains a photomultiplier tube (PMT) that detects photons of Cherenkov light generated in the ice by muons and electrons. IceCube is a cubic-kilometer-sized expansion of Amanda currently being built at the South Pole. In IceCube the PMT signals are digitized already in the optical modules and transmitted to the surface. A prototype string of 41 OMs equipped with this new all-digital technology was deployed in the Amanda array in the year 2000. In this paper we describe the technology and demonstrate that this string serves as a proof of concept for the IceCube array. Our investigations show that the OM timing accuracy is 5 ns. Atmospheric muons are detected in excellent agreement with expectations with respect to both angular distribution and absolute rate. 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Ackermann, M., Ahrens, J., Bai, X., Bartelt, M., Barwick, S. W., Bay, R., ... Yodh, G.

citation count

  • 13

complete list of authors

  • Ackermann, M||Ahrens, J||Bai, X||Bartelt, M||Barwick, SW||Bay, R||Becka, T||Becker, JK||Becker, K-H||Bernardini, E||Bertrand, D||Boersma, DJ||Böser, S||Botner, O||Bouchta, A||Bouhali, O||Braun, J||Burgess, C||Burgess, T||Castermans, T||Chinowsky, W||Chirkin, D||Conrad, J||Cooley, J||Cowen, DF||Davour, A||De Clercq, C||DeYoung, T||Desiati, P||Ekström, P||Feser, T||Gaug, M||Gaisser, TK||Ganugapati, R||Geenen, H||Gerhardt, L||Goldschmidt, A||Groß, A||Hallgren, A||Halzen, F||Hanson, K||Hardtke, R||Harenberg, T||Hauschildt, T||Helbing, K||Hellwig, M||Herquet, P||Hill, GC||Hubert, D||Hughey, B||Hulth, PO||Hultqvist, K||Hundertmark, S||Jacobsen, J||Kampert, KH||Karle, A||Kelley, JL||Kestel, M||Kohnen, G||Köpke, L||Kowalski, M||Krasberg, M||Kuehn, K||Leich, H||Leuthold, M||Liubarsky, I||Ludvig, J||Lundberg, J||Madsen, J||Marciniewski, P||Matis, HS||McParland, CP||Messarius, T||Minaeva, Y||Miočinović, P||Morse, R||Münich, KS||Nahnhauer, R||Nam, J||Neunhöffer, T||Niessen, P||Nygren, DR||Ögelman, H||Olbrechts, Ph||Pérez de los Heros, C||Pohl, AC||Porrata, R||Price, PB||Przybylski, GT||Rawlins, K||Resconi, E||Rhode, W||Ribordy, M||Richter, S||Robbins, S||Rodríguez Martino, J||Sander, H-G||Schlenstedt, S||Schneider, D||Schwarz, R||Silvestri, A||Solarz, M||Sopher, J||Spiczak, GM||Spiering, C||Stamatikos, M||Steele, D||Steffen, P||Stokstad, RG||Sulanke, K-H||Taboada, I||Thollander, L||Tilav, S||Wagner, W||Walck, C||Walter, M||Wang, Y-R||Wendt, C||Wiebusch, CH||Wischnewski, R||Wissing, H||Woschnagg, K||Yodh, G

publication date

  • January 2006