Concise total synthesis of (+/-)-salinosporamide A, (+/-)-cinnabaramide A, and derivatives via a bis-cyclization process: implications for a biosynthetic pathway?
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4-Alkylidene-beta-lactones (hetero ketene dimers) and alpha-amino acids are useful precursors for total syntheses of the beta-lactone-containing proteasome inhibitors salinosporamide A, cinnabaramide A, and derivatives. A key step is a nucleophile-promoted, bis-cyclization of keto acids that simultaneously generates the gamma-lactam and beta-lactone of these natural products. This reaction sequence may have implications for the biosynthesis of these natural products.