Source contributions and regional transport of primary particulate matter in China.
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A source-oriented CMAQ was applied to determine source sector/region contributions to primary particulate matter (PPM) in China. Four months were simulated with emissions grouped to eight regions and six sectors. Predicted elemental carbon (EC), primary organic carbon (POC), and PPM concentrations and source contributions agree with measurements and have significant spatiotemporal variations. Residential is a major contributor to spring/winter EC (50-80%), POC (60%-90%), and PPM (30-70%). For summer/fall, industrial contributes 30-50% for EC/POC and 40-60% for PPM. Transportation is more important for EC (20-30%) than POC/PPM (<5%). Open burning is important in summer/fall of Guangzhou and Chongqing. Dust contributes to 1/3-1/2 in spring/fall of Beijing, Xi'an and Chongqing. Based on sector-region combination, local residential/transportation and residential/industrial from Heibei are major contributors to spring PPM in Beijing. In summer/fall, local industrial is the largest. In winter, residential/industrial from local and Hebei account for >90% in Beijing.
author list (cited authors)
Hu, J., Wu, L. i., Zheng, B. o., Zhang, Q., He, K., Chang, Q., ... Zhang, H.
complete list of authors
Hu, Jianlin||Wu, Li||Zheng, Bo||Zhang, Qiang||He, Kebin||Chang, Qing||Li, Xinghua||Yang, Fumo||Ying, Qi||Zhang, Hongliang