Retrospective Analysis of Protein- and Carbohydrate-Focused Diets Combined with Exercise on Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence in Overweight and Obese Women. Academic Article uri icon


  • BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of protein-focused (PRO, 1.14g/kg/day) and carbohydrate-focused (CHO, 2.2g/kg/day) diets (1600kcals) combined with 10 weeks of circuit exercise training in sedentary overweight/obese women (N=661, age 4611 years) on metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed eight exercise training studies performed from 2002-2014. Primary (MetS), secondary (MetS z-scores and individual MetS components), and tertiary outcomes [body mass index (BMI) by WHO cut points] were analyzed using chi-square, GLM, and McNemar's tests. RESULTS: Both groups experienced significant weight loss, improvements in fitness, and reductions in MetS prevalence from baseline to follow-up (PRO: 49% to 42%, CHO: 42% to 36%, both P<0.01). MetS z-score improvement (66.5%) was similar for both groups with no significant between-group differences noted. There were also no significant differences for individual component features between groups for the following: waist circumference (-0.280.02 vs. -0.280.025cm, P=0.97), glucose (-0.070.03 vs. -0.080.04mM, P=0.87), triglycerides (-0.160.04 vs. -0.090.04mM, P=0.20), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.210.03 vs. -0.190.04mM, P=0.68), and systolic BP (-0.160.4 vs. -0.240.05mmHg, P=0.26). Diastolic BP showed a minor advantage for the PRO group (-0.140.05 vs. -0.300.05mmHg P=0.02). When stratified by BMI, those with morbid obesity did not show a significant improvement in MetS while following a PRO-focused diet; however, caution is warranted given the exploratory nature of this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a low-moderate calorie diet partitioned for CHO and PRO preference is equally effective when combined with a structured exercise program for reducing the prevalence of MetS prevalence in overweight/obese women.

published proceedings

  • Metab Syndr Relat Disord

altmetric score

  • 1.75

author list (cited authors)

  • Lockard, B., Earnest, C. P., Oliver, J., Goodenough, C., Rasmussen, C., Greenwood, M., & Kreider, R. B.

citation count

  • 9

complete list of authors

  • Lockard, Brittanie||Earnest, Conrad P||Oliver, Jonathan||Goodenough, Chelsea||Rasmussen, Christopher||Greenwood, Mike||Kreider, Richard B

publication date

  • May 2016