The role of auditory and visual models in the production of bimanual tapping patterns. Academic Article uri icon


  • An experiment was designed to determine the effectiveness of auditory and visual models in the learning of a 2:3 bimanual tapping pattern. Participants were randomly assigned to an auditory model, visual model, auditory + visual model, or a control (visual metronome) group. The task for all groups was to tap a left side force transducer with the left hand and a right side force transducer with the right hand in attempt to produce the desired 2:3 bimanual coordination pattern. The auditory model consisted of a series of tones representing the goal pattern played prior to each practice trial. The visual model consisted of a visual display representing the goal tapping pattern. Visual pacing metronomes were provided to the control group. The right and left side metronomes flashed during the trial in a pattern representing the goal tapping pattern. Subjects in all groups performed 14 practice trials consisting of 15 s each devoted to tapping the goal pattern (total practice time = 3.5 min). A retention test without the aid of the models or metronomes was administered following the practice trials. The results for the model groups indicated extremely effective performance of the bimanual coordination patterns for the auditory, visual, and auditory + visual model conditions with not only the relative, but also the absolute characteristics of the models exhibited during retention testing. Retention performance for the visual metronome condition was less accurate and more variable than the three model conditions. In addition, the auditory + visual model condition resulted in retention performance that was more stable than the auditory model condition.

published proceedings

  • Exp Brain Res

author list (cited authors)

  • Kennedy, D. M., Boyle, J. B., & Shea, C. H.

citation count

  • 16

complete list of authors

  • Kennedy, Deanna M||Boyle, Jason B||Shea, Charles H

publication date

  • February 2013