Evaluation of levamisole as a feed additive for growth and health management of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis) Academic Article uri icon


  • Three separate experiments were conducted with juvenile hybrid striped bass to determine the effects of levamisole as a feed supplement on growth performance, innate immunity and specific antibody responses, as well as resistance to Streptococcus iniae and Aeromonas hydrophila infection. A basal diet was formulated to contain 40% protein, 10% lipid and an estimated digestible energy level of 3.5 kcal/g. Four levels (100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) of levamisole were added to the basal diet in place of cellulose. After the 3-week feeding period in feeding trial 1, enhanced weight gain was generally observed in fish fed the diets supplemented with a low level (< 500 mg/kg) of levamisole. Dietary supplementation of levamisole at 100 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced growth and feed efficiency, compared to fish fed the basal diet. Fish fed diet supplemented with 1000 mg levamisole/kg diet showed chronic toxicity signs of inferior growth, reduced feed intake and feed efficiency. Although the extracellular superoxide anion production of head kidney cells, hematocrit, serum lysozyme and peroxidase were not significantly affected by dietary treatments, intracellular superoxide anion production of head kidney macrophages of fish fed 250 mg levamisole/kg diet was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of fish fed the other four diets. The hypothesized benefits of dietary supplementation of levamisole in reducing mortality from infection of pathogenic bacteria including S. iniae and A. hydrophila were not proven after two separate 3-week feeding trials and disease challenges in the present study. Agglutinating antibody titers of individual fish were highly varied and not significantly influenced by dietary levamisole at the tested levels. 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Li, P., Wang, X. X., & Gatlin, D. M.

citation count

  • 18

complete list of authors

  • Li, P||Wang, XX||Gatlin, DM

publication date

  • February 2006