Pharmacokinetics of proline-rich tripeptides in the pig Academic Article uri icon


  • Tripeptides may possess bioactive properties. For instance, blood pressure lowering is attributed to the proline-rich tripeptides Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP), Leu-Pro-Pro (LPP), and Val-Pro-Pro (VPP). However, little is known about their absorption, distribution, and elimination characteristics. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic behavior of IPP, LPP, and VPP in a conscious pig model. Synthetic IPP, LPP, and VPP were administered intravenously or intragastrically (4.0mgkg−1 BW in saline) to 10 piglets (approximately 25kg body weight) in the postabsorptive state. After intravenous dosing, the elimination half-life for IPP was significantly higher (P<0.001) than for LPP and VPP (2.5±0.1, 1.9±0.1, and 2.0±0.1min, respectively). After intragastric dosing, however, the elimination half-lives were not significantly different between the peptides (9±1, 15±4, and 12±6min, respectively). Maximum plasma concentrations were about 10nmoll−1 for the three tripeptides. The fraction dose absorbed was 0.077±0.010, 0.059±0.009, and 0.073±0.015%, for IPP, LPP, and VPP, respectively. Proline-rich tripeptides reach the blood circulation intact, with an absolute bioavailability of about 0.1% when administered via a saline solution. Because half-lives of absorption and elimination were maximally about 5 and 15min, respectively, this suggests that under these conditions a bioactive effect of these tripeptides would be rather acute.

published proceedings

  • Peptides

altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • van der Pijl, P. C., Kies, A. K., Ten Have, G., Duchateau, G., & Deutz, N.

citation count

  • 49

complete list of authors

  • van der Pijl, PC||Kies, AK||Ten Have, GAM||Duchateau, GSMJE||Deutz, NEP

publication date

  • December 2008