The 3Ds+R: Quantifying land use and urban form correlates of walking Academic Article uri icon


  • This paper focuses on objectively measured and individually observable micro-scale environmental variables. The process consists of initial variable screening, variable grouping and selection, variable prioritization, and statistical modeling. Using this method, small subset of correlates is isolated to be strongly associated with walking, that are grouped as destinations, distance, density, and route: the 3Ds + R. Distance measures to routine daily destinations are shown to be simple and effective alternatives to complicated composite measures often used to capture land use mix and street connectivity. The 3Ds + R can serve as the core constructs to quantify neighborhood walkability, and as practical targets for policies and interventions aimed at promoting walkable communities. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Lee, C., & Moudon, A. V.

citation count

  • 260

complete list of authors

  • Lee, Chanam||Moudon, Anne Vernez

publication date

  • January 1, 2006 11:11 AM