Constraints to Outdoor Recreation: A Multiple Hierarchy Stratification Perspective Academic Article uri icon


  • A multiple hierarchy stratification perspective was adopted to investigate outdoor recreation constraints for 3,000 Texans interviewed by telephone in 1998. This theoretical perspective contends that individuals' socio-demographic characteristics are accorded a position in society relative to others and that this position effects the individual's access to services. Logistic regression models tested whether nine outdoor recreation constraints were important to respondents based on age, gender, race/ethnicity and SES. With the exception of time constraints, all other outdoor recreation constraints were most important to elderly, female or minority respondents with lower SES. The probability of experiencing constraints to outdoor recreation is multiplied when respondents had more than one of these statuses. Implications for theory development, outdoor recreation, and service provision are discussed.

published proceedings

  • Leisure Sciences

altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Shores, K. A., Scott, D., & Floyd, M. F.

citation count

  • 115

complete list of authors

  • Shores, Kindal A||Scott, David||Floyd, Myron F

publication date

  • May 2007