Field studies were conducted from 1990 through 1997 to evaluate the long-term effect of 2- and 3-yr rotations on the control of downy brome, jointed goatgrass, and feral rye in winter wheat. At the completion of the study, jointed goatgrass and feral rye densities averaged 8 plants/m2and < 0.1 plant/m2for the 2- and 3-yr rotations, respectively. Downy brome densities averaged < 0.5 plant/m2for both the 2- and 3-yr rotations, with no treatment differences observed. Winter annual grasses were not eradicated after two cycles of the 3-yr rotations, but weed densities were reduced 10-fold compared to densities after one cycle and more than 100-fold compared with the 2-yr rotations. Wheat grain contamination with dockage and foreign material followed a similar trend. The 3-yr rotations were economically competitive with 2-yr rotations and provided superior control of the winter annual grass weeds.