Significant developments have occurred in India in the past three to four decades with respect to the state of natural resources and human population, as part of various watershed programs. Much experience has been gained by governmental and non-governmental institutions and by the stakeholders engaged in these endeavors. Although there are many success stories that credit these interventions, much more effort is required to bring the benefits to all regions and remote areas of the country. There have been many management practices and intervention strategies that have evolved from this long learning process, but more pointed research in this regard is required for developing newer technological methods suited for specific situations. Greater research is needed for identifying better institutional strategies applicable to watershed management in different socio-economic conditions and in different physiographic regions of the country. One of the major impediments to the success of most watershed programs is the lack of coordination among the many governmental institutions mandated to run these developmental plans. A sizable amount of about Rs. 1,600 crores is invested annually in improving the conditions of watersheds around the country. Watershed programs can become much more efficient and cost-effective if the roles and responsibilities of all the partners and stakeholders are clearly defined and followed up for ensuring stricter accountability. A countrywide comprehensive and integrated watershed management information system that utilizes the state-of-the-art GIS, database, and web technologies will further consolidate achievements and improve accountability and efficiency of watershed management programs. This paper draws a few comparisons with watershed programs in the United States and offers suggestions for improving the effectiveness and sustainability of these programs.