- The second-order difference-frequency wave forces on a large three-dimensional body in multi-directional waves are computed by the boundary integral equation method and the so-called FML formulation (assisting radiation potential method). Semi-analytic solutions for a bottom-mounted vertical circular cylinder are also developed to validate the numerical method. Difference-frequency wave loads on a bottom-mounted vertical cylinder and stationary four legs of the ISSC tension-leg platform (TLP) are presented for various combinations of incident wave frequencies and headings. These force quadratic transfer functions (QTF) can directly be used in studying slowly varying wave loads in irregular short-crested seas described by a particular directional spectrum. From our numerical results, it is seen that the slowly varying wave loads are in general very sensitive to the directional spreading function of the sea, and therefore wave directionality needs to be taken into account in relevant ocean engineering applications. It is also pointed out that the uni-directionality of the sea is not necessarily a conservative assumption when the second-order effects are concerned. 1993.