Fabrication of LiNbO3-As2S3 waveguides for beam steering applications Conference Paper uri icon


  • 2016 SPIE. A hybrid annealed proton exchange (APE) waveguide with a vertically integrated arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) waveguide on a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate is used to create an optical phased array (OPA) that allows for the non-mechanical steering of 1550 nm light on an integrated optic platform. The high electro-optic coefficient of the x-cut y-propagating LiNbO3 (r33 = 30.8 pm/V) is utilized by electrode structures fabricated on the LiNbO3 substrate to create a low-power, lowloss beam steering with high-speed bandwidths, capable of 10 GHz and larger as demonstrated by commercial LiNbO3 modulators. The As2S3 waveguide is introduced because of its high refractive index, which leads to a highly confined optical mode. Design and fabrication are presented for a large full width steering angle of 34, representing an order of magnitude improvement over low-confinement, diffused LiNbO3 waveguides and two orders of magnitude improvement over other reported LiNbO3 OPAs.

name of conference

  • Optics and Photonics for Information Processing X

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Macik, D. D., & Madsen, C. K.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Macik, Dwayne D||Madsen, Christi K

editor list (cited editors)

  • Iftekharuddin, K. M., Awwal, A., García Vázquez, M., Márquez, A., & Matin, M. A.

publication date

  • January 2016