The 3-D lattice theory of Flower Constellations Academic Article uri icon


  • Flower Constellations (FCs) have been extensively studied for use in optimal constellation design. The Harmonic FCs (HFCs) subset, representing the symmetric configurations, have recently been reformulated into 2-D Lattice Flower Constellations (2D-LFCs), encompassing the complete set of HFCs. Elliptic orbits are generally avoided due to the deleterious effects of Earth's oblateness on the constellation, but here we present a novel concept for avoiding this problem and enabling more effective global coverage utilizing elliptic orbits. This new 3D Lattice Flower Constellations (3D-LFCs) framework generalizes the 2D-LFCs, Walker constellations, elliptical Walker constellations, and many of Draim's global coverage constellations. Previous studies have shown FCs can provide improved performance in global navigation over existing Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). We found a 3D-LFC design that improved the average positioning accuracy by 3.5 % while reducing launch v requirements when compared to the existing Galileo GNSS constellation. 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Davis, J. J., Avendano, M. E., & Mortari, D.

citation count

  • 31

publication date

  • August 2013