Delineating shallow saline groundwater zones from Southern India using geophysical indicators. Academic Article uri icon


  • A geophysical survey was conducted over an industrial belt encompassing 80 functional leather factories in Southern India. These factories discharge untreated effluents which pollute shallow groundwater where electrical conductivity (EC) value had a wide range between 545 and 26,600 S/cm (mean, 3, 901 S/cm). The ranges of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions were from 46 to 4,850 mg/L (mean, 348 mg/L) and 25 to 10,390 mg/L (mean, 1,079 mg/L), respectively. Geoelectrical layer parameters of 37 vertical electrical soundings were analyzed to demarcate fresh and saline water zones. However, the analysis not did lead to a unique resolution of saline and fresh waters. It was difficult to assign a definitive value to the aquifer resistivity of any area. Thus, geophysical indicators, namely longitudinal unit conductance (S), transverse unit resistance (T), and average longitudinal resistivity (Rs), were calculated for identifying fresh and saline waters. Spatial distributions of S, T, and R s reflected widely varying ranges for the saline and fresh water zones. Further, the empirical relation of formation factor (F) was established from pore-water resistivity and aquifer resistivity for fresh and saline aquifers, which may be used to estimate local EC values from the aquifer resistivity, where well water is not available.

published proceedings

  • Environ Monit Assess

author list (cited authors)

  • Mondal, N. C., Singh, V. P., & Ahmed, S.

citation count

  • 36

complete list of authors

  • Mondal, NC||Singh, VP||Ahmed, S

publication date

  • June 2013