Reliability and Validity Evidence for Achievement Goal Models in High School Physical Education Settings Academic Article uri icon


  • Although empirical research in academic areas provides support for both a 3-factor as well as a 4-factor achievement goal model, both models were proposed and tested with a collegiate sample. Little is known about the generalizability of either model with high school level samples. This study was designed to examine whether the 3-factor model (Mastery Goals, Performance-Approach Goals, and Performance-Avoidance Goals) or the 4-factor model (Mastery-Approach Goals. Mastery-Avoidance Goals, Performance-Approach Goals, and Performance-Avoidance Goals) is appropriate in high school physical education settings. The factorial validity of the models and internal consistency reliability were tested with confirmatory factor analysis, invariance testing, and tests of internal consistency across 2 samples. The results reveal that the items from the 4-factor achievement goal model can produce internally consistent and valid scores for high school students in physical education settings; the 4-factor model provides a better fit to the data than the 3-factor model. The multistep invariance analysis, however, reveals only metric invariance across 2 school samples. Copyright 2007. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Inc.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Guan, J., McBride, R., & Xiang, P.

citation count

  • 12

complete list of authors

  • Guan, Jianmin||McBride, Ron||Xiang, Ping

publication date

  • January 2007