Factors Affecting the Alkaline Cooking Performance of Selected Corn and Sorghum Hybrids
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Dent corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) sample sets representative of commonly grown hybrids and diverse physical attributes were analyzed for alkaline cooking performance. The influence of kernel characteristics including hardness, density, starch properties (thermal, pasting, and crystallinity), starch content, protein content, and prolamin content on alkaline cooking performance was also determined. Corn nixtamal moisture content was lower for hard, dense kernels with high protein contents; sorghum nixtamal moisture content was lower for kernels with low moisture contents and low starch relative crystallinities. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) regression equations showed that corn nixtamal moisture content was influenced by TADD (tangential abrasive dehulling device) index, kernel moisture content, starch content, and protein content; sorghum nixtamal moisture content was influenced by starch relative crystallinity, kernel moisture content, and abrasive hardness index. Pericarp removal was not strongly correlated with kernel characterization tests. Location (environmental) and hybrid (genetic) factors influenced most kernel characteristics and nixtamalization processing variables. 2010 AACC International, Inc.