Social Stratification in Fishing Participation in the United States A Multiple Hierarchy Stratification Perspective Academic Article uri icon


  • Using the multiple hierarchy stratification perspective (MHSP), this paper investigated Americans' freshwater and saltwater fishing participation in 2011. Data from the 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation were examined using two hierarchical generalized linear models. Level 1 variables were age, education, sex (male, female), income, and race/ethnicity. Interactions among these demographic variables were also examined. Level 2 variables for freshwater and saltwater fishing were per capita inland water area in a state and the existence of coastline within each state, respectively. Sex was the most important Level 1 predictor for both freshwater and saltwater fishing participation. The two Level 2 variables were also significantly associated with freshwater fishing and saltwater fishing participation. Moreover, MHSP was an effective theoretical approach to explain Americans' fishing participation. Implications and suggestions for fishery management are discussed.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Lee, K. J., Scott, D., Floyd, M. F., & Edwards, M. B.

citation count

  • 6

complete list of authors

  • Lee, KangJae Jerry||Scott, David||Floyd, Myron F||Edwards, Michael B

publication date

  • January 2016