Vapor diffused optical waveguides in strontium barium niobate (SBN: 60)
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Single mode planar and channel waveguides have been produced in Sr 0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6 (tungsten bronze structure) by sulfur diffusion in a sealed ampule, followed by oxidation in an open tube. Losses in channel waveguides were ∼15-20 dB/cm for TM polarization and ∼27-32 dB/cm for the TE polarization in z-cut substrates. Electro-optic modulation was observed after poling of the substrate. The experimentally determined value of the effective electro-optic coefficient was slightly greater than reported earlier for bulk samples of SBN:60, and about 15 times greater than for LiNbO3. Based on measurements with the S 35 radioisotope, the average atomic sulfur concentration was estimated to be about 4×1017/cm3 in the region extending from the surface to a depth of 2.5 μm, and a significant background concentration (∼5×1016/cm 3) was present to depths in excess of 20 μm.
author list (cited authors)
Eknoyan, O., Bulmer, C. H., Taylor, H. F., Burns, W. K., Greenblatt, A. S., Beach, L. A., & Neurgaonkar, R. R.