Beyond Asimov: The Three Laws of Responsible Robotics Academic Article uri icon


  • Isaac Asimov's three laws of robotics that are based on functional morality along with the alternative laws required to address the difficulties of applying Asimov's three laws to the innovative robots has been discussed. The first law of robotics states, a robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. The second law of robotics states, a robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the first law and the third law states that, a robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the first or second law. The first alternative to Asimov's first law is that a human may not deploy a robot without the human-robot work system meeting the highest legal and professional standards of safety and ethics. The second alternative law to Asimov's second law is that a robot must respond to humans as appropriate for their roles.

altmetric score

  • 98.77

author list (cited authors)

  • Murphy, R. R., & Woods, D. D.

citation count

  • 78

publication date

  • July 2009