Age-related effects on markers of inflammation and cartilage metabolism in response to an intra-articular lipopolysaccharide challenge in horses
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Eighteen Quarter Horses were used in a randomized complete design for a 28-d experiment to evaluate age-related effects on inflammation and cartilage turnover after induction of a single inflammatory insult using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Horses were grouped by age as yearlings (3 males and 3 females), 2 to 3 yr olds (2/3 yr old; 2 males and 4 females), and skeletally mature 5 to 8 yr olds (mature; 2 males and 4 females). On d 0, all horses were individually housed and fed diets that met or exceeded requirements. On d 14, horses were challenged with an intra-articular injection of LPS. Radial carpal joints were randomly assigned to receive 0.5 ng LPS solution obtained from O55:B5 or 0.8 mL sterile lactated Ringer's solution as a contralateral control. Synovial fluid was collected prior to LPS injection at h 0 before injection and at 6, 12, 24, 168, and 336 h after injection. Samples were analyzed using commercial ELISA kits for PGE, collagenase cleavage neoepitope (C2C), and carboxypropeptide of type II collagen (CPII). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and rectal temperature (RT) were monitored over the initial 24 h and carpal circumference and surface temperature were also recorded, with additional measurements at 168 and 336 h. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Values for RT, HR, and RR were within the normal range for each age group. Heart rate and RT were influenced by age ( < 0.01), whereas RR was unaffected ( ≤ 0.21). Joint circumference was not influenced by age of horse ( = 0.84), but circumference and surface temperature increased ( < 0.01) over time across all age groups. Synovial PGE concentrations tended ( = 0.09) to be influenced by age, with yearlings having lower ( = 0.03) concentrations than mature horses. Concentrations of synovial C2C were affected by age of horse, with yearlings and 2/3 yr olds having lower ( < 0.01) concentrations than mature horses. Similarly, synovial CPII was influenced by age, with yearlings and 2/3 yr olds having lower ( ≤ 0.02) concentrations than mature horses. Ratios of anabolic CPII to catabolic C2C varied by age, with mature and 2/3-yr-old horses having greater ( < 0.01) values compared with yearlings. These results indicate that inflammation and the corresponding cartilage turnover in response to LPS administration vary with age.
author list (cited authors)
Kahn, M. K., Coverdale, J. A., Leatherwood, J. L., Arnold, C. E., Dabareiner, R. A., Bradbery, A. N., Millican, A. A., & Welsh, T. H.