Influence of oral glucosamine supplementation in young horses challenged with intra-articular lipopolysaccharide.
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Fourteen yearling Quarter horses (351 to 470 kg) were utilized in a randomized complete block design to evaluate potential of glucosamine hydrochloride (HCl) to mitigate intra-articular inflammation following a single inflammatory insult. Horses were blocked by BW, age, and sex, and randomly assigned to treatments for a 98-d experiment. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CON; = 7) fed 1% BW per d (as-fed) of concentrate only or a treatment diet ( = 7) of concentrate top dressed with 30 mg/kg BW glucosamine HCl (99.6% purity; GLU30) offered at 12 h intervals. Horses were maintained in individual stalls and offered approximately 1% BW per d of coastal bermudagrass hay (). Plasma and synovial fluid samples were obtained every 14 and 28 d, respectively, and stored at -20C, before analysis of glucosamine via HPLC. On d 84, an intra-articular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was conducted on all horses to determine ability of dietary glucosamine HCl supplementation to mitigate joint inflammation and cartilage metabolism. Carpal joints were randomly selected to receive 1 of 2 intra-articular treatments and included sterile lactated Ringer's (control; Contra) only or 0.5 ng LPS solution (LPS) obtained from O55:B5 into the radial carpal joint. Synovial fluid was obtained at pre-injection h 0 and 6, 12, 24, 128, and 336 h post-injection, and was analyzed for prostaglandin E (PGE), carboxypeptide of type II collagen (CPII) and collagenase cleavage neopeptide (C2C) biomarkers by commercial ELISA kits. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. Plasma and synovial glucosamine tended ( = 0.10 and = 0.06, respectively) to increase over time in response to GLU30 compared to CON. There was a treatment by time interaction ( 0.01), with GLU30 increasing plasma glucosamine concentrations at 28 and 42 d when compared to CON. A treatment by time interaction ( 0.01) was observed with GLU30 increasing synovial glucosamine levels at d 28 and 84 ( 0.01 and = 0.05, respectively). Intra-articular LPS increased ( 0.01) synovial PGE, C2C, and CPII levels. GLU30 decreased synovial PGE and C2C concentrations when compared to CON ( = 0.04 and = 0.05, respectively), while synovial levels of CPII increased ( 0.01) in GLU30 horses. These results indicate the potential for oral glucosamine HCl to mitigate intra-articular inflammation and influence cartilage turnover in a young horse model.