Identification of cellular proteins interacting with equine infectious anemia virus S2 protein.
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The macrophage-tropic lentivirus, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), encodes the small auxiliary protein S2 from a short open reading frame that overlaps the amino terminus of env EIAV S2 is dispensable for virus replication in cultured cells but is required for disease production. S2 is approximately 7 kDa and has no overall amino acid sequence homology to other cellular or viral proteins. Therefore it is likely that S2 plays a role as an adaptor protein. To further investigate S2 function we performed a yeast-2-hybrid screen to identify cellular proteins that interact with EIAV S2. The screen identified two human cellular proteins, amplified in osteosarcoma (OS-9) and proteasome 26S ATPase subunit 3 (PSMC3) that interact with S2. The equine homologues of these proteins were cloned and their interactions with S2 confirmed using co-immunoprecipitation assays. We identified two OS-9 isoforms that interact with S2 and a third splice variant that does not, indicating a region of OS-9 apparently required for the S2 interaction. The roles of these cellular proteins during EIAV infection have not been determined.