Intrauterine growth retardation in livestock: Implications, mechanisms and solutions
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Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a significant problem in livestock production. It adversely affects neonatal survival, postnatal growth performance, efficiency of feed utilization, tissue composition (including protein, fat and minerals), meat quality, long-term health of offspring, and adult onset of disease. Genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (including nutrition), as well as maternal maturity impact on the size and functional capacity of the placenta, placental vascular growth, uteroplacental blood flows, transfer of nutrients from mother to fetus, the endocrine milieu, as well as embryonic development of myocytes, adipocytes and other cell types. Growing evidence suggests that arginine-derived signaling molecules (nitric oxide and polyamines) play an important role in regulating these key physiological and biochemical processes. Thus, modulating arginine-metabolic pathways can enhance embryonic/fetal survival and growth, and provide a useful approach to prevent and treat IUGR.
author list (cited authors)
Wu, G., Bazer, F. W., Datta, S., Gao, H., Johnson, G. A., Lassala, A., ... Spencer, T. E.