l-Glutamine or l-alanyl-l-glutamine prevents oxidant- or endotoxin-induced death of neonatal enterocytes
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This study tested the hypothesis that L-glutamine (Gln) or L-alanyl-L-glutamine (Ala-Gln) prevents oxidant- or endotoxin-induced death of neonatal enterocytes. Enterocytes of neonatal pigs rapidly hydrolyzed Ala-Gln and utilized Gln. To determine whether Gln or Ala-Gln has a cytoprotective effect, IPEC-1 cells were cultured for 24 h in Gln-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's-F12 Ham medium containing 0, 0.5, 2.0 or 5.0 mM Gln or Ala-Gln, and 0, 0.5 mM H(2)O(2) or 30 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Without Gln or Ala-Gln, H(2)O(2)- or LPS-treated cells exhibited almost complete death. Gln or Ala-Gln at 0.5, 2 and 5 mM dose-dependently reduced H(2)O(2)- or LPS-induced cell death by 14, 54 and 95%, respectively, whereas D: -glutamine, alanine, glutamate, ornithine, proline, glucosamine or nucleosides had no effect. To evaluate the effectiveness of Gln or Ala-Gln in vivo, 7-day-old piglets received one-week oral administration of Gln or Ala-Gln (3.42 mmol/kg body weight) twice daily and then a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0.1 mg/kg body weight); piglets were euthanized in 24 and 48 h to analyze intestinal apoptotic proteins and morphology. Administration of Gln or Ala-Gln to LPS-challenged piglets increased Gln concentrations in small-intestinal lumen and plasma, reduced intestinal expression of Toll-like receptor-4, active caspase-3 and NFkB, ameliorated intestinal injury, decreased rectal temperature, and enhanced growth performance. These results demonstrate a protective effect of Gln or Ala-Gln against H(2)O(2)- or LPS-induced enterocyte death. The findings support addition of Gln or Ala-Gln to current Gln-free pediatric amino acid solutions to prevent intestinal oxidative injury and inflammatory disease in neonates.
author list (cited authors)
Haynes, T. E., Li, P., Li, X., Shimotori, K., Sato, H., Flynn, N. E., ... Wu, G.