Amino acid profiles in first trimester amniotic fluids of healthy bovine cloned pregnancies are similar to those of IVF pregnancies, but not nonviable cloned pregnancies Academic Article uri icon


  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), or cloning, is one of the assisted reproductive technologies currently used in agriculture. Commercial applications of SCNT are presently limited to the production of animals of high genetic merit or the production of the most elite show cattle owing to its relatively low efficiency. In current practice, 20% to 40% of SCNT pregnancies do not result in viable offspring. In an effort to better understand some of the anomalies associated with SCNT pregnancies, we investigated amino acid compositions of first trimester amniotic fluid. In this retrospective study, amniotic fluids were collected from SCNT and control IVF pregnancies at Day 75 of gestation and grouped according to the pregnancy results: control IVF (IVF), viable SCNT pregnancies that resulted in live healthy calves (SCNT-HL), nonviable SCNT pregnancies that were aborted before Day 150 (SCNT-ED), and nonviable SCNT pregnancies that were aborted after Day 150 or produced deceased calves (SCNT-LD). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the concentrations of 22 amino acids (AAs) in the amniotic fluid samples. There were no differences in average AA concentrations between IVF and SCNT-HL groups, whereas SCNT-LD and SCNT-ED had higher levels of total AA concentrations. Concentrations of asparagine, citruline, arginine, and valine were significantly higher in the SCNT-LD group. Both SCNT-LD and SCNT-ED groups had relatively large intragroup variances in AA concentrations. Urea concentration was also measured in the SCNT amniotic fluid samples. No correlations between urea concentrations and arginine concentrations or pregnancy outcomes were found. The findings in this study not only deepen the understanding on┬áSCNT pregnancy anomalies, but also provide a potentially useful screening tool for assessing viable and nonviable SCNT pregnancies.

author list (cited authors)

  • Zhou, W., Gosch, G., Guerra, T., Broek, D., Wu, G., Walker, S., & Polejaeva, I.

citation count

  • 3

publication date

  • October 2013