Pregnancy recognition signals in mammals: the roles of interferons and estrogens Academic Article uri icon


  • Reproduction is a highly complex biological process requiring a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes) and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling and regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph or the secretome required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation by the conceptus. Pregnancy recognition signaling as related to sustaining the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL) which produce progesterone the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for successful outcomes of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur in mammals due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. The challenge is to understand the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction and to use that knowledge to enhance fertility and reproductive health of animals including nonhuman primates. It is important to translate knowledge gained from studies of animals to address issues of fertility and reproductive health in humans.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Bazer, F. W., Wu, G., & Johnson, G. A.

citation count

  • 13

complete list of authors

  • Bazer, Fuller W||Wu, Guoyao||Johnson, Greg A

publication date

  • January 2017