Effects of Hydrogen Addition on the Flame Speeds of Natural Gas Blends Under Uniform Turbulent Conditions
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Copyright © 2015 by ASME and Alstom Technologie AG. Natural gas is the primary fuel for stationary, powergeneration gas turbines, and it is necessary to understand its combustion characteristics under engine-relevant (turbulent) conditions. Since its composition varies depending on the fuel source, a natural gas surrogate (NG 18% C2+) and admixtures with H2 have been utilized recently by the authors to aid chemical kinetics modeling using ignition delay times and laminar flame speed experiments. The present study focused on measuring turbulent flame speeds (displacement speeds) of natural gas (NG2) and methane with H2 using a fan-stirred flame bomb. The apparatus is a closed, cylindrical chamber fitted with four radial impellers that generate a central spherical volume of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence with negligible mean flow. Schlieren imaging was used to visually track the growth of the spherically expanding turbulent kernels during the constant-pressure period. The turbulence levels were fixed at an average RMS intensity level of 1.5 m/s and at an integral length scale of 27 mm. Turbulent flame speeds (ST,0.1) of NG2 blends were measured over a wide range of equivalence ratios between 0.7 and 1.3. ST,0.1 for the natural gas surrogate closely matched with those of methane for nearstoichiometric mixtures. However, preferential-diffusion effects (fuel effects) were observed under turbulent conditions for off stoichiometric cases. The effects of hydrogen addition on the turbulent flame speeds of NG2 (25/75 and 50/50 (by volume) blends of H2/NG2) were also investigated and were compared with the flame speeds reported in a recent paper by the authors (ASME GT2014-26742) on the effects of hydrogen addition to turbulent flame speeds of methane. The effect of the hydrogen addition was to increase the turbulent flame speed (by about a factor of two for 50% H2 addition), although this effect was much more pronounced for the lean and stoichiometric mixtures. Interestingly, the flame speeds (both laminar and turbulent) of the CH4 blends with H2 were slightly larger than those for the NG2 blend at equivalent conditions, or about 10-20% larger at 50% H2 addition. This behavior can be explained kinetically by the increased importance of the inhibiting reaction CH3 + H (+M) 虠 CH4 (+M), where ethane oxidation produces more CH3 radicals than methane at similar conditions.
author list (cited authors)
Ravi, S., Morones, A., Petersen, E. L., & Güthe, F.