Response of turf and quality of water runoff to manure and fertilizer.
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Manure applications can benefit turfgrass production and unused nutrients in manure residues can be exported through sod harvests. Yet, nutrients near the soil surface could be transported in surface runoff. Our research objective was to evaluate responses of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. Guymon] turf and volumes and P and N concentrations of surface runoff after fertilizer or composted manure applications. Three replications of five treatments were established on a Boonville fine sandy loam (fine, smectitic, thermic Vertic Albaqualf) that was excavated to create an 8.5% slope. Manure rates of 50 and 100 kg P ha(-1) at the start of two monitoring periods were compared with P fertilizer rates of 25 and 50 kg ha(-1) and an unfertilized control. Compared with initial soil tests, nitrate concentrations decreased and P concentrations increased after two manure or fertilizer applications and eight rain events over the two monitoring periods. The fertilizer sources of P and N produced 19% more dry weight and 21% larger N concentrations in grass clippings than manure sources. Yet, runoff volumes were similar between manure and fertilizer sources of P. Dissolved P concentration (30 mg L(-1)) in runoff during a rain event 3 d after application of 50 kg P ha(-1) was five times greater for fertilizer than for manure P. Observations during both monitoring periods indicated that total P and N losses in runoff were no greater for composted manure than for fertilizer sources of P at relatively large P rates on a steep slope of turfgrass.
author list (cited authors)
Gaudreau, J. E., Vietor, D. M., White, R. H., Provin, T. L., & Munster, C. L
complete list of authors
Gaudreau, JE||Vietor, DM||White, RH||Provin, TL||Munster, CL