Runoff losses of phosphorus and nitrogen imported in sod or composted manure for turf establishment. Academic Article uri icon


  • Nutrient loading on impaired watersheds can be reduced through export of sod grown with manure and export of composted manure for turf production on other watersheds. Effects of the sod and manure exports on receiving watersheds were evaluated through monitoring of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) and N concentrations and losses in runoff from establishing turf. Three replications of seven treatments were established on an 8.5% slope of a Booneville soil (loamy-skeletal, mixed, superactive Pachic Argicryolls). Three treatments comprised imported 'Tifway' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) sod grown with composted dairy manure (382 or 191 kg P ha(-1)) or fertilizer (50 kg P ha(-1)). Three treatments were sprigged with Tifway and top-dressed with either composted manure (92 or 184 kg P ha(-1)) or fertilizer (100 kg P ha(-1)). The control was established bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. Guymon]. During eight fall rain events, mean TDP concentration in runoff (7.8 mg L(-1)) from sprigged Tifway top-dressed with manure (84 kg P ha(-1)) was 1.6 times greater than sod imported with 129 kg manure P ha(-1). During the first fall event, mass losses of TDP (232 mg m(-2)) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) (317 mg m(-2)) from sprigged treatments top-dressed with manure or fertilizer were nearly three times greater than manure-grown sod. Percentages of manure P lost as TDP in runoff from imported sod were 33% of percentages lost from sprigged treatments top-dressed with manure. Sod grown with manure P rates of 190 kg P ha(-1) can be imported without increasing runoff losses of TDP compared with conventional fertilization of establishing turfgrass.

published proceedings

  • J Environ Qual

author list (cited authors)

  • Vietor, D. M., Provin, T. L., White, R. H., & Munster, C. L.

citation count

  • 17

complete list of authors

  • Vietor, DM||Provin, TL||White, RH||Munster, CL

publication date

  • January 2004