Biosolid and Alum effects on runoff losses during turfgrass establishment
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Large, volume-based rates of composted biosolids (CB) enhance turfgrass establishment and soil properties, but nonpoint-source runoff losses could occur during production and after transplanting of sod. The objective was to evaluate runoff losses of N, P, sediment, and organic C during establishment of sprigs or transplanted sod of Tifway bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers. X C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davey) with and without CB and aluminum sulfate (Alum). Four treatments comprised Tifway sprigged in a sandy loam soil with and without incorporation of 0.25 m(3) CB m(-3) soil and Alum. In four additional treatments, sod transplanted from Tifway grown with and without CB was established with and without a surface spray of Alum. During early establishment, CB incorporated in soil before sprigging reduced runoff loss of sediment and total N to amounts comparable to transplanted sod. In contrast, mean runoff losses of total dissolved P and soluble-reactive P (SRP) were more than 50% greater for CB-amended sod than for fertilizer-grown sod or Tifway sprigged in soil with or without CB. Yet, the surface spray of Alum reduced runoff loss from sod more than 88% for SRP and 41% for dissolved organic C. Both surface sprays and incorporation of Alum effectively reduced SRP runoff loss from CB, soil, and turfgrass sources during turfgrass establishment.
author list (cited authors)
Vietor, D. M., Schnell, R. W., Munster, C. L., Provin, T. L., & White, R. H.