EIAV S2 enhances pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response in infected macrophages. Academic Article uri icon


  • Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection is distinctive in that it causes a rapid onset of clinical disease relative to other retroviruses. In order to understand the interaction dynamics between EIAV and the host immune response, we explored the effects of EIAV and its S2 protein in the regulation of the cytokine and chemokine response in macrophages. EIAV infection markedly altered the expression pattern of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines monitored in the study. Comparative studies in the cytokine response between EIAV(17) and EIAV(17DeltaS2) infection revealed that S2 enhances the expression of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-8, MCP-2, MIP-1beta and IP-10. Moreover, S2 specifically induced the expression of the newly discovered cytokine, IL-34. Taken together, these results may help explain the effect of cytokine and chemokine dysregulation in EIAV pathogenesis and suggest a role of S2 in optimizing the host cell environment to promote viral dissemination and replication.

published proceedings

  • Virology

author list (cited authors)

  • Covaleda, L., Fuller, F. J., & Payne, S. L.

citation count

  • 28

complete list of authors

  • Covaleda, Lina||Fuller, Frederick J||Payne, Susan L

publication date

  • February 2010