Increased beef consumption increases apolipoprotein A-I but not serum cholesterol of mildly hypercholesterolemic men with different levels of habitual beef intake. Academic Article uri icon


  • The objective of this research was to compare the effects of a lean beef enriched in oleic acid to a beef that is typical of the commercial beef consumed in the United States. Ten mildly hypercholesterolemic men, ages 34-58 years old, were selected from the Texas A&M University faculty and staff. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two diets for a 6-week duration followed by a crossover after a 4-week habitual diet washout period. Diets were consumed daily for a 6-week study period. Participants substituted lean beef obtained from Wagyu bullocks or commercial beef for the meat typically consumed. Total cholesterol, apolipoproteins A-I and B, triacylglycerols, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were measured in serum samples collected weekly. Beef type had no effect on any measured variable. There were no significant differences between baseline HDL or LDL cholesterol concentrations after the consumption of the beef test diets. Apolipoprotein A-I, serum glucose, and uric acid concentrations were elevated by the additional dietary beef. Analysis of records of customary diets indicated that one group consumed 160 g of beef daily, whereas the other group consumed only 26 g of beef daily. Therefore, post hoc analyses tested the habitual beef intake x treatment time interaction. LDL cholesterol concentration was markedly higher in the group with low habitual beef intake (180 vs 144 mg/dl), and HDL cholesterol was slightly higher (44 vs 40 mg/dl; post-test values) than for the group with high habitual beef intake, but there were no habitual intake x time interactions for LDL or HDL cholesterol. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations also were greater in the individuals habitually consuming less beef. This study had three important findings: i) a lean beef source enriched with oleic acid was no different from commercial beef in its effect on lipoprotein fractions; ii) neither previous level of beef intake nor baseline LDL cholesterol concentration influenced the serum cholesterol response to added dietary beef, which was negative; and iii) apolipoprotein A-I, but not HDL or LDL cholesterol, was sensitive to the additional dietary beef.

published proceedings

  • Exp Biol Med (Maywood)

altmetric score

  • 11.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Smith, D. R., Wood, R., Tseng, S., & Smith, S. B.

citation count

  • 15

complete list of authors

  • Smith, Dana R||Wood, Randall||Tseng, Stephen||Smith, Stephen B

publication date

  • April 2002