Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits proliferation but stimulates lipid filling of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.
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This study documented the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. During proliferation, preadipocytes were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), 100 g/L fetal bovine serum (FBS), 0. 584 g/L L-glutamine and 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 or 10.0 mg/L CLA. Proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was measured directly by cell counting and indirectly by radiolabeled thymidine incorporation into DNA at 96 h postinoculation. Conjugated linoleic acid was not cytotoxic during proliferation or differentiation. The 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 or 10.0 mg/L CLA treatments inhibited proliferation by 8, 12, 31 and 36%, respectively (all P < 0.05). Treatment with 10 mg/L CLA or 10 mg/L linoleic acid (cis-9,12) reduced the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA by 56 and 35%, respectively, suggesting that some portion of the effect of CLA on preadipocyte proliferation was nonspecific. After the initiation of differentiation, preadipocytes were cultured in DMEM, 100 g/L FBS, 0.584 g/L L-glutamine, 1.7 micromol/L insulin and 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 or 10.0 mg/L CLA. Radiolabeled glucose incorporation into cellular lipids was increased from 7.4 to 11.1, 11.1, 17.4 and 22.5 nmol/(h.10(6 )cells) (all P < 0.05) by 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L CLA, respectively. A media concentration of 10 mg/L CLA increased total cellular CLA (from 0 to 0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol/10(6 )cells), palmitic acid (from 0.47 to 1.10 +/- 0.03 micromol/10(6 )cells) and palmitoleic acid (from 0.24 to 0.81 +/- 0.03 micromol/10(6 )cells) (means +/- pooled SEM; all P < 0.05). Conjugated linoleic acid had no effect on arachidonic acid content, but decreased its proportion (g arachidonic acid/100 g total fatty acids) by >50% (P < 0.05). These data indicate that CLA inhibited proliferation and promoted de novo lipogenesis and lipid filling in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, suggesting that CLA may reduce overall fat accumulation in growing animals by inhibiting stromal vascular preadipocyte hyperplasia.