Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space: Musculoskeletal Health Academic Article uri icon


  • There is considerable variability among individuals in musculoskeletal response to long-duration spaceflight. The specific origin of the individual variability is unknown but is almost certainly influenced by the details of other mission conditions such as individual differences in exercise countermeasures, particularly intensity of exercise, dietary intake, medication use, stress, sleep, psychological profiles, and actual mission task demands. In addition to variations in mission conditions, genetic differences may account for some aspect of individual variability. Generally, this individual variability exceeds the variability between sexes that adds to the complexity of understanding sex differences alone. Research specifically related to sex differences of the musculoskeletal system during unloading is presented and discussed.

published proceedings

  • J Womens Health (Larchmt)

altmetric score

  • 36

author list (cited authors)

  • Ploutz-Snyder, L., Bloomfield, S., Smith, S. M., Hunter, S. K., Templeton, K., & Bemben, D.

citation count

  • 30

complete list of authors

  • Ploutz-Snyder, Lori||Bloomfield, Susan||Smith, Scott M||Hunter, Sandra K||Templeton, Kim||Bemben, Debra

publication date

  • January 2014