Invariant measures for the $3$D Navier-Stokes-Voigt equations and their Navier-Stokes limit
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The Navier-Stokes-Voigt model of viscoelastic incompressible fluid has been recently proposed as a regularizaron of the three-dimensional NavierStokes equations for the purpose of direct numerical simulations. Besides the kinematic viscosity parameter, v > 0, this model possesses a regularizing pa-rameter, a > 0, a given length scale parameter, so that -is the relaxation time of the viscoelastic fluid. In this work, we derive several statistical properties of the invariant measures associated with the solutions of the threedimensional Navier-Stokes-Voigt equations. Moreover, we prove that, for fixed viscosity , v > 0, as the regularizing parameter a tends to zero, there exists a subsequence of probability invariant measures converging, in a suitable sense, to a strong stationary statistical solution of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, which is a regularized version of the notion of stationary statistical solutions - a generalization of the concept of invariant measure introduced and investigated by Foias. This fact supports earlier numerical observations, and provides an additional evidence that, for small values of the regularizaron parameter a, the Navier-Stokes-Voigt model can indeed be considered as a model to study the statistical properties of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and turbulent flows via direct numerical simulations.
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