Aquatic training reduces exercise blood pressure and increases muscle eNOS Conference Paper uri icon


  • Exercise may reduce blood pressure (BP) and improve vasodilatory capacity thus blunting the BP response to stress. To test the efficacy of aquatic treadmill exercise (ATM) to improve BP, sedentary adults were randomized to 12weeks of either ATM (n = 19 , 17 , 412 yr, 173.58 1.58 cm, 93.19 3.15 kg) or land treadmill (LTM, n = 11 , 13 , 42 2 yr, 170.39 1.94 cm, 88.14 3.6 kg) training; 3sessionswk1, progressing to 500 kcalsession1, 85% VO2max. A Bruce treadmill test was performed before and after training with BP measured at rest, at the end of each stage, and for 5 minutes of recovery. Twelve subjects (5 ATM, 7 LTM) volunteered for biopsies of the vastus lateralis before and after training, and muscle samples were assessed for eNOS content. Data were analyzed using Group Time ANOVA repeated across Time, = 0.05. Systolic BP (918.2mmHg), mean arterial pressure (4.88.3mmHg), pulse pressure (7.515mmHg), and rate pressure product (1.83.9 bpmmm Hg103) were reduced during exercise stress and recovery after ATM, but not after LTM training. Skeletal muscle eNOS was increased 31% in the ATM group, but not changed after LTM training. Both training modes improved VO2max (+3.6mL O2kg1min1); resting blood pressure was not altered with training. These data suggest that ATM training may increase muscle eNOS and combat hypertension.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Crouse, S. F., Greene, N. P., Lambert, B. S., Carradine, A. T., Joubert, D., Riechman, S., & Fluckey, J.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Crouse, Stephen F||Greene, Nicolas P||Lambert, Brad S||Carradine, Alex T||Joubert, Dustin||Riechman, Steven||Fluckey, James

publication date

  • April 2013