Determination of creatinine excretion and evaluation of spot urine sampling in Holstein cattle
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Four experiments were carried out to determine urinary creatinine excretion in Holstein growing bulls, lactating cows, and replacement heifers. In addition, we evaluated the use of spot sampling technique to estimate purine derivatives (PD) excretion. In Experiment I, 15 lactating cows were used in a randomized block design to compare creatinine excretion obtained in different time-spans of urine collection (during 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24h). In Experiment II, four bulls were allocated in a 4 4 Latin square to evaluate the effect of diet (levels of cottonseed hulls of 0, 10, 20, and 30% of the DM) on excretion of creatinine. In Experiment III, 15 lactating cows were used to evaluate the effect of milk production (ranging from 3.9 to 36.7kg/d) on daily creatinine and PD excretions. In Experiment IV, 22 replacement heifers were utilized to evaluate the effect of body weight (BW, ranging from 107 to 545kg) on daily creatinine and PD excretions. For all experiments, total urine collections were made over 24h and daily creatinine and PD excretions were determined. Different time-spans for total urine collection had no effect (P = 0.70) on creatinine excretion compared to the 24-h collection period, indicating a constant excretion rate of creatinine. The roughage source did not influence (P = 0.64) creatinine excretion by bulls, averaging 0.248 0.008mmol/kg BW. Similarly, milk production did not affect (P = 0.82) creatinine excretion in cows, averaging 0.212 0.004mmol/kg BW. In contrast, the creatinine excretion (mmol/kg BW) decreased linearly (P < 0.001) as BW of heifers increased, suggesting that creatinine excretion might vary with the degree of maturity of growing animals. There were no differences (P > 0.14) between the 24-h total collection and spot sampling technique in estimating daily PD excretion. The spot sampling technique may be used to estimate the daily excretion of urinary PD in Holstein cattle under practical conditions. 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.