Self‐Cleaning, Thermoresponsive P(NIPAAm‐co‐AMPS) Double Network Membranes for Implanted Glucose Biosensors
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A self-cleaning membrane that periodically rids itself of attached cells to maintain glucose diffusion could extend the lifetime of implanted glucose biosensors. Herein, we evaluate the functionality of thermoresponsive double network (DN) hydrogel membranes based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and an electrostatic co-monomer, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS). DN hydrogels are comprised of a tightly crosslinked, ionized first network [P(NIPAAm-co-AMPS)] containing variable levels of AMPS (100:0-25:75 wt% ratio of NIPAAm:AMPS) and a loosely crosslinked, interpenetrating second network [PNIPAAm]. To meet the specific requirements of a subcutaneously implanted glucose biosensor, the volume phase transition temperature is tuned and essential properties, such as glucose diffusion kinetics, thermosensitivity, and cytocompatibility are evaluated. In addition, the self-cleaning functionality is demonstrated through thermally driven cell detachment from the membranes in vitro.
author list (cited authors)
Fei, R., Means, A. K., Abraham, A. A., Locke, A. K., Coté, G. L., & Grunlan, M. A.