Identification and reduction of urinary aflatoxin metabolites in dogs Academic Article uri icon


  • Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) is a phyllosilicate clay commonly used as an anticaking agent in animal feeds. HSCAS tightly and selectively adsorbs aflatoxin. In 1998, 55 dogs died in Texas after eating dog food containing aflatoxin (150-300 ppb). The corn in the diets was contaminated with aflatoxin. Six dogs were given a low-level, sub-clinical dose of aflatoxin B(1). On average, 71.5% of aflatoxin M(1) cleared within 6 h after dosing, increasing to 90.4% after 12 h. Aflatoxin M(1) was no longer detectable in urine after 48 h. Aflatoxin P(1) was not found in urine compared to large amounts of M(1) and trace amounts of Q(1). In a crossover study, six dogs randomly fed a commercial dog food (no-clay control) or coated with HSCAS (0.5% by weight) were subsequently administered a sub-clinical dose of aflatoxin B(1). Diets were switched and the process repeated. The HSCAS-coated diet significantly reduced urinary aflatoxin M(1) by 48.4%+/-16.6 SD versus the control diet. In conclusion, HSCAS protects dogs fed diets with even minimal aflatoxin contamination. Despite regular and careful ingredient screening for aflatoxin, low concentrations may reach the final product undetected. Therefore, HSCAS may provide the pet food industry further assurance of canine diet safety.

altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Bingham, A. K., Huebner, H. J., Phillips, T. D., & Bauer, J. E.

citation count

  • 22

complete list of authors

  • Bingham, AK||Huebner, HJ||Phillips, TD||Bauer, JE

publication date

  • November 2004