Canine thoracolumbar invertebral disk disease: diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.
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Thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) is a common, important cause of paraspinal hyperesthesia, pelvic limb ataxia, paraparesis, paraplegia, and urinary and fecal incontinence in dogs. A companion article reviewed pathophysiology, epidemiology, physical examination, and emergency medical therapy. This article addresses the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of dogs with thoracolumbar IVDD.
author list (cited authors)
Griffin, J. F., Levine, J., Kerwin, S., & Cole, R.
complete list of authors
Griffin, John F||Levine, Jonathan||Kerwin, Sharon||Cole, Robert