Canine thoracolumbar invertebral disk disease: pathophysiology, neurologic examination, and emergency medical therapy.
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Thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) is a common, important cause of paraspinal hyperesthesia, pelvic limb ataxia, paraparesis, paraplegia, and urinary and fecal incontinence in dogs. Research offers insights into the pathophysiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of this disorder. The comparative efficacy of many familiar therapies remains unknown and controversial. This article reviews the pathophysiology and epidemiology of this condition and the examination and emergency medical therapy of dogs with suspected thoracolumbar IVDD.
author list (cited authors)
Griffin, J. F., Levine, J., & Kerwin, S.
complete list of authors
Griffin, John F||Levine, Jonathan||Kerwin, Sharon