Canine thoracolumbar invertebral disk disease: pathophysiology, neurologic examination, and emergency medical therapy. Academic Article uri icon


  • Thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) is a common, important cause of paraspinal hyperesthesia, pelvic limb ataxia, paraparesis, paraplegia, and urinary and fecal incontinence in dogs. Research offers insights into the pathophysiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of this disorder. The comparative efficacy of many familiar therapies remains unknown and controversial. This article reviews the pathophysiology and epidemiology of this condition and the examination and emergency medical therapy of dogs with suspected thoracolumbar IVDD.

published proceedings

  • Compend Contin Educ Vet

author list (cited authors)

  • Griffin, J. F., Levine, J., & Kerwin, S.

citation count

  • 11

complete list of authors

  • Griffin, John F||Levine, Jonathan||Kerwin, Sharon

publication date

  • March 2009