Uterine Histotroph and Conceptus Development. I. Cooperative Effects of Arginine and Secreted Phosphoprotein 1 on Proliferation of Ovine Trophectoderm Cells via Activation of the PDK1-Akt/PKB-TSC2-MTORC1 Signaling Cascade1
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The greatest limitation to reproductive performance in most mammals, including humans, is embryonic mortality, which, in general, claims 20%-40% of the embryos during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. Both arginine and secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) are multifunctional molecules that increase significantly in ovine uterine histotroph during early pregnancy. However, little is known about the relationship and underlying mechanisms for synergistic effects of arginine and SPP1, if any, on conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes) development. Therefore, we conducted in vitro experiments using our established ovine trophectoderm cell line (oTr1) isolated from Day 15 ovine conceptuses to determine their proliferative response to individual and synergistic effects of arginine and recombinant SPP1 (rSPP1) that contains an RGD binding sequence. At physiological concentrations, arginine (0.2 mM) stimulated oTr1 cell proliferation 1.7-fold (P < 0.05) at 48 h, whereas rSPP1 (10 ng/ml) had no such effect. However, an additive effect on oTr1 cell proliferation was induced by combination of arginine and SPP1 as compared to the control (2.1-fold increase; P < 0.01), arginine alone (1.3-fold increase; P < 0.05), and rSPP1 alone (1.5-fold increase; P < 0.01). This additive effect was mediated through cooperative activation of the PDK1-Akt/PKB-TSC2-MTORC1 cell signaling cascade. Collectively, results suggest that arginine and SPP1 in histotroph act cooperatively to enhance survival, growth, and development of ovine conceptuses.
author list (cited authors)
Wang, X., Johnson, G. A., Burghardt, R. C., Wu, G., & Bazer, F. W.