mTORC1 signaling and IL-17 expression: Defining pathways and possible therapeutic targets.
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IL-17 mediates immune responses against extracellular pathogens, and it is associated with the development and pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases. The expression of IL-17 is regulated by various intracellular signaling cascades. Recently, it has been shown that mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, comprised mainly of mTORC1 signaling, plays a critical role in IL-17 expression. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding mechanisms by which mTORC1 regulates IL-17 expression. mTORC1 positively modulates IL-17 expression through several pathways, i.e. STAT3, -HIF-1, -S6K1, and -S6K2. Amino acids (AAs) also regulate IL-17 expression by being the energy source for Th17 cells, and by activating mTORC1 signaling. Altogether, the AA-mTORC1-IL-17 axis has broad therapeutic implications for IL-17-associated diseases, such as EAE, allergies, and colitis.