Photoluminescence of GaN nanowires of different crystallographic orientations.
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We utilized time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence of a-axis and c-axis gallium nitride nanowires to elucidate the origin of the blue-shifted ultraviolet photoluminescence in a-axis GaN nanowires relative to c-axis GaN nanowires. We attribute this blue-shifted ultraviolet photoluminescence to emission from surface trap states as opposed to previously proposed causes such as strain effects or built-in polarization. These results demonstrate the importance of accounting for surface effects when considering ultraviolet optoelectronic devices based on GaN nanowires.